Type Benefits
Strategic capital
  • Improves capabilities of academics (van der Sijde, 2012)
  • Improves preparation of students for future professional challenges in industry (Strunz et al., 2003)
  • Improves university productivity (Kruss et al., 2011)
  • Assists universities to fulfil their ‘third mission’ responsibilities (van der Sijde, 2012; Davey et al., 2011; Drucker & Goldstein, 2007; Strunz et al., 2003; Carayol, 2003)
  • Increases motivation for innovation (Ilyas, 2004; Gray, 2000)
  • Retention (Plewa et al., 2005)
  • Improves university reputation and image   (Ahrweiler et al., 2011; van der Sijde, 2012; Strunz et al., 2003)
Network capital
  • Contributes to the employment record of the university’s graduates. (Strunz et al., 2003)
Cultural capital Research-related

  • Provides original findings and new approaches in problem solving (Debackere & Veugelers, 2005)
  • Exchanges key technical and business knowledge (Carayol, 2003)
  • Reduces cost in training of academics (Shahabudin, 2006)
  • Provides practical application of research results (Lee, 2011)
  • Improves relevance of research and connected with the needs of the local market (Gibbons et al., 1994; Gibbons, 1997; Lee, 2011; Tucker, 2002)
  • Provides access to industrial knowledge (Arvanitis et al., 2008)
  • Provides access to applied technological areas (Santoro and Chakrabarti, 2002)
  • Increases total papers published and citations (The Library House, 2006)


  • Supports curriculum development through increased relevance of learning outcomes, teaching content methods, learning methods as well as student assessment (Gillis & McNally, 2010; Shahabudin, 2006)
  • Supports curriculum delivery through the provision of real life experiences hands-on internship, training and field projects (Wilson, 2012; Shahabudin, 2006)
  • Supports program evaluation through immediate feedback on adequacy, the development of new courses and long term on graduate performance (Shahabudin, 2006)
  • Creates new workshops, seminars and industry designed courses (Wilson, 2012; Shahabudin, 2006)
  • Improves relevance of teaching and curriculum development and delivery (van der Sijde, 2012; Kruss et al., 2011; Lamichhane & Nath Sharma, 2010; Carayol, 2003)
Economic capital Commercialisation-related

  • Sources of income (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2006)

Access to funding

  • Sources of funding (van der Sijde, 2012; Lee, 2011; Wood, 2011; Plewa et al., 2005; Ilyas, 2004; Carayol, 2003; Barnes et al., 2002; Morgan & Strickland, 2001; Gray, 2000; Jankowski 1999)

Access to in-kind resources

  • Provides access to companies resources and investments (German Centre for Research and Innovation, 2013)
  • Provides access to educational resources such as state of the art training facilities like laboratories, workshops and manufacturing plants (Shahabudin, 2006)